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Cardiganshire cawl recipe

Cardiganshire cawl recipe

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  • Recipes
  • Ingredients
  • Meat and poultry
  • Beef
  • Beef soup

This traditional recipe is derived from the local farming community of Cardiganshire (Ceredigion). Serve with lightly buttered bread and a good mature Cheddar cheese.

61 people made this

IngredientsServes: 12

  • 2L (3 1/4 pints) water
  • 350g (12 oz) shin of beef
  • 2 large onions, chopped
  • 2 large carrots, sliced
  • 1 swede, diced
  • salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
  • 4 potatoes, peeled and quartered
  • 2 leeks, sliced
  • 1 small head cabbage, sliced
  • handful chopped fresh parsley

MethodPrep:1hr ›Cook:2hr ›Ready in:3hr

  1. Bring water to the boil in a large pot. Place beef shin in, and simmer 1 1/2 hours. Let cool overnight.
  2. Remove meat from pot, trim off gristle and cut meat into medium sized pieces; set aside. Skim fat from surface of stock, or strain through a fine sieve.
  3. Return stock to heat, and bring to the boil. Add onions, carrots and swede. Season with salt and pepper. Simmer for 1 hour. Add potatoes, and simmer until tender, 15 to 20 minutes. Stir in the leeks, cabbage, parsley and reserved meat. Simmer 10 minutes, or until cabbage is tender.

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Reviews & ratingsAverage global rating:(23)

Reviews in English (15)

This is just the way my gran used to make cawl. I prefer it with more root vegetables and using lamb, but I do still have really good memories of my gran's shin beef cawl. It's a must on a cold winter night!-18 Nov 2009

Very good. My first time making Welsh Cuisine, in fact. This recipe appealed to me because it called for Beef rather than lamb and the fact there was rutabaga and cabbage as well. Rarely see soups in the US calling for Rutabaga, despite it being one of my favorite vegetables.I could not find the same cut of beef called for here but we had organic short ribs on hand so I simmered them the day before for a very long time to use for the broth base. It so happened I had the simmering fluid left over from having made corned beef the day before so I added some of it to this broth for extra flavor. I think it helped out.Other than that, after having read over several Cawl recipes, I added Thyme and sautéed the non meat ingredients before adding to the simmering broth. Also threw in some fish sauce during the cooking process to give it a little more umami. Also followed the tradition as dictated and served it with a good bread and sharp cheddar.My whole family loved it Looking forward to the leftovers.-27 Feb 2017


Very tasty & hearty soup. I wasn't sure how the "boys" would like rutabaga in soup, but it was a big hit. I like thick & chunky soups, so this fit the bill. Will definitely make again.-06 Aug 2007

Welsh Cawl Cawl (pronounced cow-l, like towel in one syllable) is a thrifty traditional Welsh soup dish, dating back to the 14 th Century. Recipes vary from kitchen to kitchen in Wales, and are often passed down through families. It is really very simple – a soup made from a cheap cut of red meat stewed slowly with winter root vegetables, historically in a cauldron over an open fire. But, oh, it is so much more than a simple soup – ask ANY Welsh person. I am Welsh. My parents, and their parents were Welsh, I went to university in Wales, am a huge supporter of the Welsh rubgy team, and consider it a mere technicality that I was born and brought up in Surrey, England. I didn’t grow up eating Cawl, I wish I could ask my mother why. But I discussed this with my siblings, and we reasoned that either Mum didn’t like Cawl, or she assumed that we wouldn’t eat it and therefore didn’t make it. Cawl tastes way better than it looks, so maybe the latter is true. I have vague memories of Mamgu Wales (my Welsh grandma, I also had a Mamgu London) making it on one of our holiday visits. Because Cawl is a simple, traditional food, recipes are usually more a guide than a strict set of ingredients and instructions. So before cooking my own version I consulted all of my Welsh cookbooks and a number of Welsh friends. Should I use lamb shoulder, neck, chops, beef brisket, or salty bacon? Should I add cabbage? Of course, I had to have leeks. Most definitely leeks. It’s not Cawl without leeks. Should I cook on the stove or in the slow cooker? Whatever I decided, I must eat the Cawl with bread and butter and a hunk of strong cheese, that was certain. Of course, everyone has a different memory – but nearly all brought fond smiles of shared family meals. Traditional Welsh cawl recipe and two of my traditional Welsh love spoons Traditionally the choice of meat depended on what was available, however it was always an economical cut which required long slow cooking. Cawl isn’t really a meaty dish, the meat is there to flavour the broth. Sometimes the meat isn’t even eaten with the soup, it could be fished out kept for another meal. Very thrifty. The cooking method for this dish is proof that old traditional diets were often intuitively very good for you. I doubt the Celtic mothers were consciously aware of the exact science behind nutritional broths – or that in 2015 they would become the height of nutritional trendiness. By slow cooking the lamb, the stock is enriched with the nutrients from the meat, bones and cartilage – especially gelatin, which has a multitude of health benefits particularly supporting poor digestion. The neck is a tough cut of meat, and slow cooking breaks down the tough tissue and collagen, making the meat easier to digest. So here I present you with MY Welsh Cawl, in a beautiful cawl bowl, served with bread and butter, and a smidge of cheese, daffodils on the side. But please, don’t eat the daffodils. So much more than soup. A bowl full of tradition With that all important bread , butter and hunk of cheese If you enjoy my witterings about Welsh food you might like these two recipe posts about Welsh Cakes Grain free Welsh cakes & Gluten free Welsh cakes What kind of food was available?

At that time, the choice of raw ingredients was much less than that offered by supermarkets nowadays. There was also a considerable difference between what was available in the countryside compared to the towns. Rural communities still depended quite heavily on what could be produced on their own land. Because Wales is a mountainous, rainy country, wheat was difficult to grow. Oats and barley were the main crops. The meat that was eaten was generally salted, rather than fresh. Most of the family&rsquos meals were cooked on the large, open hearth which had equipment for boiling, baking and roasting.

If the old ways of doing things do not appeal, you can find advice on how to adapt some of the recipes to suit our modern tastes.

Welsh Fare

Cawl (broth) was the dish most commonly served for dinner on the farm during the winter months and it was regarded as a very nutritious meal. It was served in wooden bowls and eaten with wooden spoons. Apple dumplings and oatmeal trollies were sometimes boiled in the broth along with the meat and vegetables. (See respective recipes.)

Cawl Awst was the best broth of the year when a wide variety of fresh garden vegetables were available. A feast known as Cawl Awst was held, primarily for sailors, on New Quay beach on the first day of August. The broth, boiled in a large cauldron, would be prepared under the supervision of one woman and most families in the neighbourhood would supply the required meat (fresh beef occasionally) and vegetables.

Cawl ffwt a berw. This particular name was given to the broth that was prepared rather hurriedly by cutting the meat and vegetables into small pieces and boiling them all together until they were cooked.

Cawl pen lletwad was the name given to a vegetable broth prepared only when meat was in short supply.

Cawl twymo. It was generally the custom to reheat the broth that was left over from the mid-day meal and to serve it for supper on the same day, or for lunch on the following day.

The true origins of Wales&rsquo national symbol, the leek, are now somewhat lost in myth and legend but certainly stretch back several hundred years. The Bard alludes to it and, way back in the 14th century, the Welsh archers had uniforms of green and white, paying homage to the Welsh leek. According to Historic UK, the connection may go back even further still, to a time when people worshipped nature, perhaps helped by the leek&rsquos medicinal reputation and its inclusion in cawl (see below for more on that). However it came to be, the Welsh proudly wear representations of the leek, especially during national sporting and military events.

Lovers of this vegetable can enjoy it fresher for even longer if they have a Liebherr fridge-freezer with a BioFresh compartment where a leek will remain fresh for up to 29 days (compared with 15 days in the fridge).

A Taste of Wales in Food and Pictures

By Theodora Fitzgibbon
Pan Books, London and Sydney, 4th printing 1977. ISBN 0 330 23624 5.

Here is a list of photographs and recipes in the book compiled by Venita Roylance, February/March 2004

NB. It is possible that some dates and accreditations of photographs in the book itself may be misleading and therefore it is suggested that all such details be independently confirmed with depositories such as Swansea Museum who hold copies of several of them.

These are in page number order

1. Three men on a dock, possibly at Fishguard, 1906.

3. Post Office, St David's, Pembrokeshire, c. 1870 (thatched house & woman)

5. A miner's stove and hearth, The Triangle, Merthyr Tydfil, Glamorgan, c. 1905

7. Shooting party, Montgomeryshire, c. 1885

9. Butcher's and baker's boys gossiping, Tenby, Pembrokeshire, 1907

11. Panning for gold in the valley of the River Mawddac, Merioneth, 1899

13. Sturdy Welsh ponies (with riders), c 1891

17. Narrow-gauge railway, Tan-bwlch, Ffestiniog, Merioneth (built 1836) c. 1875.

19. Ascending Mount Snowdon, Caernarvonshire, by pony and foot, from Llanberis, September 1907.

21. Mrs. Jones selling produce in Old Market Hall, c 1904

23 Tavern friend (young woman in traditional dress), Beaumaris, Anglesey, c 1865

25. Picnic in the Gower Peninsula, 1841

27. The Miners' Arms, Minsterly Fair, Salop, c 1890

29. Llechwedd Slate Quarry, Cardiganshire, c 1900

31. Coracle Fishermen, Cardigan (Aberteifi), c. 1880

33. St. Mary Street, Cardiff, 1891. (Several men standing in front of a building plastered with posters for "A Fine Art Industrial Exhibition")

35. Horse Tram, Newport, Monmouthshire, c 1885. (Painted on the side of the tram: Alexandra Docks & High Street Station)

37. The Blind Fisherman of the Mumbles, aged 55, c 1878.

39. The village band, Tal-y-bont, Cardiganshire, c 1896

41. Shrimping in Gower, Glamorgan, c. 1841

43 Monmouthshire Drag Club at Abergavenny, April 1871

45 Griffiths' Temperance Hotel, Tenby, Pembrokeshire, c. 1900

47. Shearing day at the Havod, Ffermdy, Blaenrhondda, c. 1900

49. Blackberrying, Singleton Park, near Swansea, c. 1843

51. Landore Court, Cardiff, Glamorgan, 1891

53. Fishermen't cottages, the Harbour, Tenby, Pembrokeshire, c 1890

55. Dowlais Iron Company blast furnace, c 1870

57. The Gymnasts, c 1892 ( two girls and a woman dressed in gym clothes)

59. Welsh kitchen with settle or box beds, Rhiwgraidd, Lledrod.

61. Picnic at Oystermouth Castle, Gower, Glamorgan, c. 1841

63. Equestriennes, Llansanffraid, Montgomeryshire c. 1880

65. Woman playing a harp, two men listening, Plas Newydd, Pen y Ffordd, 1900

67. Sian Phillips y mynydd (of the mountain), c 1870

69. A summer outing to Mumbles, Gower Peninsula, Glamorgan, August 1876

71. The vicarage dining-room (two girls), Aberdaron, Caernarvonshire, 1900

73. The Bonfire, Singleton Park, Swansea, Glamorgan, c. 1841

75. Bute Street, Cardiff, 1891 (several people in a crowd)

77. Pen-clawdd, Glamorgan, cockle-beds and cockle-women, c 1850

79. The Horticulturists, Wrexham, Denbighshire, c 1910

81.. Miss Vaughan, Dolgellau, Merioneth, 1855

83. Cardiff Naturalists' outing to Elan Valley Dam, 1902

85. Bathing machines, Tenby beach, Pembrokeshire, 1892

87. Commercial Street, Maesteg, Glamorgan, C. 1900

89. Laverbread curing, Freshwater West, Pembrokeshire, c 1900

91. The Miller and his wife, Edern, c 1900

92. Expenses at the Hendre on the occasion of the Coming of Age of John Maclean Rolls, April 1891 (hand written list)

93. Roasting the ox on the occasion of John Maclean Rolls, of the Hendre, Monmouth, coming of age, April 25th 1891

95. At Tenby Races, Pembrokeshire, 1912

97. Salmon Netting, Teifi Estuary, Cardiganshire, 1881

99. Lord Gordon-Lennox and Glynn Vivian, Singleton Park, Swansea, c 1850

101. Stage coach outside the King's Head, Newport, Monmouthshire, c 1890

103. Welsh drawing-room, Aberdaron, Caernarvonshire, 1900

105. (River) fishing in Wales, c 1862

107. Boiling up the Brewis Kettle, Singleton Park, near Swansea, c 1842

109. Outing to Aberystwyth, c. 1892

111. "The Dip," Newport Bridge, Newport, Monmouthshire, c 1890

113. (Two men) enjoying the 'churchwarden' pipes, Plas Lodwig, Bangor, Caernarvonshire, 1901

115. (Boats at low tide) Evening at Abersoch, Caernarvonshire, 1900

117. The Mari Lwyd, Llangynwyd, Glamorgan, 1905

119. Boys collecting the Calennig, Llangynwyd, Glamorgan, 1904


These are in page number order

Where there was just a Welsh title given Venita has added in brackets what she thinks the dish is, based on ingredients and directions.
But if anyone knows a more correct translation of the title, please let us know

01. Sgadan Abergwaun [fish casserole]

02. Bara Ceirch - Oatcakes, traditional

05. Teisen Lap - Plate Cake

08. Bara Sinsir - Welsh Gingerbread

12. Pwdin Reis Griffiths - Mrs. Griffiths' Rice Pudding

15. Cregyn Gleision - Mussels Stew

16. Brithyll A Chig Moch - Trout with Bacon

18. Pwdin Eryri - Snowdon Pudding

20. Cawl Llysiau Gardd - Garden Vegetable Soup and Rhubarb and Gooseberry Jam

23. Wyau Sir Fôn - Anglesey Eggs and Apricocke Wine

24. Pasteiod Cennin - Leek Pasties or Turnovers and Gwlybwr Hufen - Cream Salad Dressing

30. Eog - Salmon and Saws Eog Teifi - [Salmon stock]

32. Golwythau Cig Davad - Mutton or Lamb Chops and Golwythau Cig oen â Phys - Lamb Chops with Peas

33. Cawl Cymreig - Welsh Soup

36. Teisen Gocos - Cockle Cakes

39. Teisen Fêl - Honey Cake

41. Corgimychiaid - Prawns: Berdys - Shrimps Prawn or Shrimp Paste

42. Gwydd - Goose: Stuffed Roat Goose with Spicy Apple Sauce

44. Torbwt Wedi ie Fôtsio - Poached Turbot with Granville Sauce

47. Cacen Gneifio - Shearing Cake

48. Gwin Mwyar Duon - Blackberry Wine and blackberry Curd

50. Swper Mam - Mother's Supper and Crempog Las - Welsh Omelette

53. Sgadan - Herrings: Potted Herrings and Crempog Geirch - Oatmeal Pancakes

54. Diod Sinsir - Ginger Beer

57. Cig Oel â Mâl - Honeyed Lamb

59. Pice Ar y Maen - Welsh Cakes and Cacs Ffair Llanddarog - Llanddarog Fair Cakes

60. Wystrys - Oysters: Gower Oyster Soup and Selsig Sir Forgannwg - Glamorgan Sausages

63. Pastai Ffowlyn Cymreig - Welsh Chicken Pie

65. Pwdin Efa - Eve's Pudding

66. Teisen Datws - Potato Cakes

68. Poten Bwmpen - Pumpkin Pie

73. Cig Eidion Cymreig Wedi ei Frwysio - Welsh Braised Beef

75. Punchnep - [Potatoes with Turnips] and Teisen Nionod - Onion Cake

77. Pastai Gocos - Cockle Pie

78. Caws Pobi - Welsh Rarebit

80. Teisen Galan Ystwyll - Twelfth Night Cake

82. Tarten Gennin - Leek Tart or Flan

86. Cig Moch Wedi ei Ferwi â Saws Persli - Boiled Ham and Parsley Sauce

90. Bara Gwenith - Wholemeal bread

94. Pwdin Caws Pobi Cymreig - Welsh Cheese Pudding

97. Eog Rhost - Roast Salmon

99. Hwyaden Hallt Cymreig - Welsh Salt Duck with Onion Sauce

100. Cig Oen Rhost â Saws Criafol - Roast Saddle of Mutton with Rowanberry Sauce

The cawl, bara brith and Welsh cakes that are actually vegan

Wales is renowned for some delicious dishes but who says you can&apost enjoy cawl, bara brith or Welsh cakes if you&aposre a vegan.

Vegan chef Sarah Philpott is sharing some of her favourite Welsh recipes in time for St David&aposs Day .

A couple of them are featured in her new book, The Occasional Vegan, a collection of home-cooked recipes that prove that being vegan is far from boring and features some of the dishes she enjoyed while growing up in Wales.

“Everything is tasty, wholesome and comforting – it’s food like mama used to make – and it just so happens to be vegan. In this book, you’ll find meals for every occasion, whether that’s a quick weeknight supper, a leisurely weekend brunch, or something for a special celebration," says Sarah.

Here she reveals how you can also make vegan versions of some favourite Welsh dishes in time for your March 1 celebrations.

Ingredients (serves 4)

For the tofu

– 1 tsp vegetable stock powder – 100ml boiling water

For the cawl

– 1 medium onion, peeled and diced

– 2-3 large potatoes, quartered (or 2-3 baby new potatoes, halved) – 1 large leek, finely sliced

– 1 small swede, peeled and chopped into medium-sized chunks – 2-3 carrots, peeled and chopped

Take the tofu and use kitchen roll or a clean tea towel to blot and absorb all its water. Take two heavy wooden chopping boards and place on either side of the block to ‘press’ it and absorb excess moisture. If you can, put something heavy, like a hardback book, on top of the chopping board to weigh it down further. Leave for at least 30 minutes then slice into medium-sized chunks.

Now, make your marinade by mixing together the Marmite, stock powder and water. Pour into a large dish, then coat both sides of the tofu strips with the mixture and leave to marinate for at least 30 minutes, or longer if you can.

Heat 1 tbsp oil in a pan over a medium heat and fry the onions for five minutes. Add all the other ingredients apart from the tofu and leeks and pour over the hot stock. Season with salt and pepper, then bring to the boil, reduce the heat and simmer for 20-25 minutes, stirring frequently.

While the soup is still simmering, heat 1 tbsp oil in a large frying pan over a medium heat. Fry the tofu for 10 minutes, until brown, turning every so often.

Pour the leftover marinade into the pot with the cawl and when it’s been cooking for 25 minutes, add the fried tofu and leeks and cook for another 15-20 minutes and add more stock if needed. When it’s cooked, remove the bay leaves and thyme and serve with crusty bread.

Croeso Cymraig: A Welsh Welcome

The enthusiastic welcome from all parts of the world which greeted previous editions of "Croeso Cymreig " has encouraged us to produce this further edition with several additional recipes and a section on home-made wines. It is not a collection of traditional Welsh recipes as such but an attempt to answer the many requests we receive for recipes which were popular in Wales during the last century and which can equally well be used and enjoyed today. Time and time again we are asked such questions as " Can you give me a recipe for . ffest y cybydd . teisen gri . cockle pie ? my grandmother used to make it but never put her recipe on paper." Many of these requests come to us from Welsh people overseas and already thousands of copies of previous editions have been sent to all parts of the World - America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Egypt, Pakistan and countries in Europe. We know of several Welsh Societies overseas who have held Welsh tea parties and suppers using the recipes from this book.

In Wales itself we have found that hoteliers and caterers in particular have welcomed these recipes. They know that foreign visitors to Wales enjoy a good meal all the more when it has a traditional Welsh flavour. As for Welsh housewives they have always been noted for their hospitality and they more than anyone realise the importance of putting these old family recipes on paper to hand them safely on to the next generation. This was also emphasised by the interest which the general public took in the recent Welsh recipe competition organised by the " Western Mail." Some of the winning recipes are included in this edition and we acknowledge with thanks the co-operation and assistance given to us.

Whether it be in the home or the hotel, we hope that this book will further help in keeping a welcome that is indeed a Croeso Cymreig.

Grace before meals

O Dad, yn deulu dedwydd
Y deuwn, a diolch o'r newydd,
Can's o'th law y daw bob dydd
Ein lluniaeth a'n llawenydd

Benedic Domine nos et haec tua dona quae de tua
largitate accepimus per Christum Dominum nostrum

Recipes & Home Made Wines

The Comment column contains details of the main ingredients where there is no English version given in the book

What’s in a Name?

Crempog, crempgau, Welsh light cakes, Ffroes, Pikelets, hot cakes, pancakes, gridle cakes, griddle cakes, crempog burum, Welsh crumpets, or just drop or dropped scones, so what’s in a name?

Each of the above is very regional, to Wales and the rest of the UK. My husband was born and grew up in Yorkshire, and he calls what I would think of as crumpets, piklelets.

And, within Wales, there are many names for today’s recipe for Welsh Crempog (Crempogau), which they are more commonly known as in North Wales, where I live.

If we look at some of the names for these pancake type crumpets, you can see there is common etymology that links many of them. For example, Ffroes, which is another word for today’s Welsh Crempog (Crempogau) recipe, is thought to come from the Old English (Norman) name for Froise, which were deep fried pancakes.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that the word Crempog, is also linked to the Old English word for a “curled up pancake” which was called a Crompeht, the word crompeht meaning “crumpled”.

And, in within Wales, there are many names for today’s recipe for Welsh Crempog (Crempogau), as I will share below, taken from the Welsh Fare website.

Weeds of the waves – Laver bread

Porphyra umbilicalis,’Bara lawr’, ‘the Welshman’s caviar’. A dark green – or is it red? – or pink or deep brown?[1] – seaweed that is simultaneously the crowning joy and sharpest point of division of all Welsh foods. Crowning joy, because this is a true delicacy, with a deep umami flavour and a rich, smooth texture that fills your mouth. Sharp point of division, because like Marmite, this is a love-it-or-hate-it foodstuff, shunned and adored in equal measure even within the same family.

Laver bread, properly speaking, is the finished product made with laver, the seaweed itself. It is a native to rocks on all the westward shores of the British Isles

Laver grows near the high-water mark of the intertidal zone in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. It grows best in cold nitrogen-rich water.[2]

It is one of the major plant-based sources of vitamin B12, and has a high content of a number of dietary minerals, with concentrations of both iron and iodine particularly high. (The iodine is what gives it the characteristic umami flavour akin to oysters or olives).[3] And its marine riches have been appreciated for a long time in Wales.

An old spring ritual

We don’t know when people first started harvesting and using laver in Wales. But Gerald of Wales mentions its use in Pembrokeshire in the 12th century. William Camden, writing in Britannia in 1607 gives us a more detailed account of how the weed was harvested in springtime:

“Near St Davids, especially at Eglwys Abernon, and in many other places along the Pembrokeshire Coast, the peasantry gather in the Spring time a kind of Alga or seaweed, where they made a sort of food called lhavan or llawvan, in English, black butter. The seaweed is washed clean from the sand, and sweated between two tile stones. The weed is then shred small and well-kneaded, as they do dough for bread, and made up into great balls or rolls, which some eat raw, and others fry with oatmeal and butter”.[4]

In more recent times, and certainly by the early 19th century, a cottage industry had grown up on the Burry Inlet and the Loughor estuary between Gower and Llanelli, and laver was a mainstay at nearby Swansea market. Oral memories captured by Minwel Tibbot in the 1920s from elderly people who could recall the 1850s give us recipes from Cardiganshire and South Pembrokeshire, and the accompanying note: ‘the most common method of cooking laverbread in the counties of South Wales was to fry it in bacon fat and serve it with bacon, usually for breakfast’[5]. Freeman also has a recipe from a cookery book published in 1808 after the compiler, Mrs Maria Rundell, had visited Swansea. The recommendation here is that ‘after roasting. Welsh mutton used to be dished with the piping hot laver ‘bread’ mixed with Seville Orange juice’.[6]

Laver must be boiled for a good 10 hours before it can be used as food. Traditionally in Wales this boiling is done with a little salt, and it continues until you have a greeny-black puree.[7] Suffice to say, to the uninitiated it is not the most appetising of foods in appearance at this point.

But from here, a huge array of possibilities present themselves. Traditionally, this included making the lave into little cakes fried with oatmeal and eaten with bacon and cockles, or using it as delicious tangy spread on toast. It was also commonly made into ‘cawl lafwr’ (a stew or soup) and was even served as a condiment with mutton and lamb. More recent recipes include laverbread quiche,[8] laverbread pasta[9], laver sauce to accompany crab[10], or even as a salad[11].

Living tradition

A few companies harvest laver in southern Wales commercially today. Interviews with some of those modern-day inheritors of the old tradition will, hopefully, be appearing on the website soon….

Watch the video: ബരഡ ഉണട? പതര കലയകനന വഴ അറയലല. Crispy Tasty Bread Pakoda. Bread Snacks Recipe


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